Printing of the hottest banknotes, stamps and othe

2022-08-08
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Printing of paper money, stamps and other securities (II)

while the Western powers invaded militarily, they also imported Western currencies into China and printed banknotes for local and private banks in China. The banknotes they printed attracted the attention of people of insight in the Qing government because they adopted advanced and helpless modern printing technology, with exquisite pictures and excellent printing. In particular, some government officials who advocated innovation talked about the imperial court, asking the government to introduce western advanced money printing technology and issue paper money in China to meet the economic needs of the Qing government at that time. In the 32nd year of Guangxu's reign (1906), the Ministry of household (later renamed the Du branch) sent personnel to Japan to investigate the printing technology of paper money, and presented a memorial to the imperial court on the establishment of an official printing office in March of that year. The memorial said: We should know that paper money was originally intended for the convenience of businessmen and people, and it is actually a financial organ,... In the issuance of paper money and all books and official papers in eastern and Western countries, all valuable ones are owned by the government, and private manufacturing by the people is strictly prevented. Since the Ministry is at the time of rectifying the finance, it is extremely appropriate to consider taking measures and making proper preparations to establish a foundation;. After that, after the inspectors returned to China in 1907, they wrote the measures and opinions on the establishment of a printing office by the imperial court. At this time, the Qing government to save the crisis situation, to; Unify the circular method in exchange for rights, To control the financial economy, we must print and distribute money. In addition, at this time, China's industry and Commerce had achieved initial development, and domestic and foreign trade was increasing. China's old silver dollar, silver Liang and old-fashioned banknotes issued by the Qing government could not meet the needs of the circulation field at that time, and objectively put forward requirements for the development of China's paper money to a higher and newer level. As a result, the Qing government adopted the memorial of the Ministry of household and decided to establish it; Household Printing Bureau

in 1907, the Qing government approved the memorial of the Ministry of household, and the Ministry of household began immediately; Printing Bureau of the Ministry of household; The preparatory work of. At that time, the world's banknote printing industry was in a leading position with the steel plate engraving gravure printing technology adopted by the American banknote company, so the Qing government sent personnel to the United States to investigate and determine the United States; National Printing Office of Beijing; The scale and level of building China's official Printing Bureau

there were two kinds of engraving gravure technology at that time, one was copper gravure technology, and the other was steel gravure technology. Compared with the two, the steel intaglio plate has a solid texture, fine lines, clear layers, printing plate printing resistance, clear lines and thick ink layer, which has a particularly unique effect on the expressiveness of human portraits and landscape paintings. It is not easy to imitate and has good anti-counterfeiting function

the printing office is located in the white paper square outside Xuanwu Gate in Beijing, covering an area of more than 240000 square meters. The construction began on June 1, 1908. It was designed and drawn by American miraben company, constructed by Japanese Huasheng Company, and purchased and installed by American old flag Changyang bank, at a cost of 1.1 million taels of silver. At the same time, we also set about establishing organizational structures. Under the general office and deputy office, there are two offices for affairs and public works. The public works department is the production management department, which consists of five sections: plate making, color making (ink making), printing, finishing and machinery. In addition to printing banknotes, the Qing government also assigned the stamp printing of the Ministry of post and communication to the printing office

in order to master the technology of steel intaglio engraving, the Qing government spared no expense and hired five American technicians from the United States, including engraver Haiqu, to work in the Printing Bureau and teach the technology of steel intaglio engraving and plate making. The establishment of the Du Branch Printing Bureau and the arrival of American technicians such as Haiqu have ushered in a new era in the history of China's banknote printing technology

in the process of preparation for the construction of the Printing Bureau of the Du branch, while building workshops, it recruited personnel for technical training. It is particularly worth mentioning that Bi chennian, Li Fu, Yan Xilin and Wu Jintang, who were recruited from the Tianjin official newspaper Bureau and had learned the engraving technology of copper intaglio from the Japanese, after a period of study, all mastered the engraving technology of steel intaglio and became the first generation of engraving steel intaglio technicians in China, which attracted the attention of the printing industry at that time and laid a solid foundation for the further development of engraving steel intaglio technology in China

the plate making and printing equipment of the printing office was configured according to the size and level of American money printing companies, which was at the advanced level in the world at that time. They mainly include universal engraving machines (see Figure), steel plate passing machines (Figure) and hand gravure printing machines (Figure) purchased from the United States, as well as plate making and printing equipment such as lithography machines, lead printers, disk machines, code printers, cameras, and corresponding power equipment such as generators. With complete equipment and advanced technology, it is the only one in China and the first-class in the world. By 1914, all the printing offices were completed. (color picture) is to strengthen the fixation between the blade and the tool holder; The bearings should be lubricated regularly. The panorama of the printing office carved by Wu Jintang. The Qing government spared no expense in preparing to establish the Du Branch Printing Bureau, which is undoubtedly a great contribution to China's printing industry

color pictures

after coming to the Printing Bureau, Haiqu not only trained technology, but also presided over the design and engraving of the first bill of the Printing Bureau; Exchange certificate of Daqing bank;. This set of Qing bank exchange certificates is divided into four types: one yuan, five yuan, ten yuan and one hundred yuan. On the left side of the ticket, there is a bust of Regent zaifeng, with a dragon flying above, a sailboat at one yuan on the lower right, a knight at five yuan, an ancient city at ten yuan and farming at one hundred yuan. In order to carve zaifeng's head, Hai Qu once personally put on his court uniform and went to the Lord's residence to meet the Regent himself. After returning, with great excitement, he worked together with Chinese sculptors to complete this exquisite and historic set in August 1910; The engraving of the exchange certificate of the Qing bank and the printing of the sample sheet were officially launched on March 1st, 1911. This marks how China's printing battery acupuncture testing machine works, and the banknote technology has been raised to a new level, an advanced level that only a few countries in the world can achieve with a set of clamps. Therefore, the Printing Bureau designated March 1st, 1911 as the banknote printing anniversary

image passing machine

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