Printing knowledge that must be considered in the

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Printing knowledge that must be considered in graphic design

prepress operation refers to the preliminary work of the printing process, including typesetting, color separation and scanning. The importance of its work mainly lies in mastering the software used by the computer in prepress operation, being familiar with the basic workflow of printing process, good graphics and image processing ability, etc

at present, there is a serious problem in prepress operation in China: prepress operators are basically not printing professionals; Students from printing colleges basically do not know much about prepress work. This has caused a contradiction: how to deal with the combination of desktop system operation and printing professional technology

for designers who want to transfer from the computer graphic design industry to prepress, the primary task is to control the professional knowledge of printing at all costs after contacting prepress work, otherwise they are very likely to be unable to work

in order to help some designers who are new to the prepress production industry, based on my previous personal work experience and experience, I will briefly summarize some problems that beginners often encounter, hoping to play a role

first, the knowledge of characters

words are written symbols used to record and convey language

characters used in printing can be divided into type, font, size, etc

1. Font

in the domestic printing industry, there are mainly Chinese characters, foreign characters, national characters and so on. Chinese characters should strengthen the construction of the Secretariat of the special committee, including Song typeface, regular script, boldface and so on. Foreign characters can be divided into white and bold according to the thickness of the characters, or into regular, italic, floral and so on according to the shape. National characters refer to the characters used by some ethnic minorities, such as Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur, Korean, etc

Song typeface: Song typeface is the most widely used font in the printing industry. According to the different shapes of words, it is divided into book song and newspaper song. Song typeface is a popular printing font that originated from the woodblock printing in the Song Dynasty. The font of Song typeface is square, and the strokes are horizontal and vertical, thin and thick, with clear edges and corners. The structure is rigorous, neat and uniform, and has a strong regularity of strokes, so that people have a comfortable and eye-catching feeling when reading. In modern printing, it is mainly used in the body of books or newspapers

regular script: regular script, also known as living script, is a font that imitates handwriting habits. Its strokes are straight and uniform, and its font is correct. It is widely used in student textbooks, popular books, annotations, etc

boldface: boldface, also known as square or isoclinal, is a kind of bold font with square face, dignified shape, horizontal and vertical strokes, all the strokes are the same thickness, and the structure is eye-catching and tight. Bold type is suitable for headlines or eye-catching notes or annotations that need attention. Because the font is too thick, it is not suitable for typesetting the body part

imitation Song typeface: imitation Song typeface is a relatively beautiful and straight font with Song typeface structure and regular script strokes. The strokes are uniform in thickness horizontally and vertically, which speeds up the utilization of magnesium alloy and rare earth magnesium (aluminum) alloy. It is often used for typesetting subtitles, poetry essays, annotations, quotations, etc. it is also used for typesetting body parts in some reading materials

art style: art style refers to some abnormal special printing fonts, which are generally used to beautify the layout. Generally, the strokes and structure of art style are visualized, which are often used in the title part on the cover of books and periodicals or on the page. If applied properly, it can effectively enhance the artistic taste of printed matter. This type of font has a wide range of types, such as Han Ding, Wen Ding and other fonts in the font library

2. Font size

font size is a measure of the size of characters. The dotted system is commonly used internationally, while the dotted system is mainly used in China. The numbering system adopts several movable types that are not multiples of each other as the standard, and forms its own system according to the conversion relationship of doubling or halving, which can be divided into four character system, five character system, six character system, etc. The smaller the nominal number of font size, the larger the font size of the current foam granulator industry should pay attention to this environmental protection problem, such as the size 4 is larger than the size 5, and the size 5 is larger than the size 6, etc

point system, also known as point system (P), is measured by calculating the point value of the shape of a word. According to the provisions of the printing industry standard, the size of each point value of the font size is equal to 0.35mm, and the error shall not exceed 0.005mm. For example, if the font size five is changed to the dot system, it is equal to 10.5 points, that is, 3.675mm. All external characters are calculated by points, and the size of each point is about 1/72 inch, that is, it is equal to 0.35146mm

the size of font size in traditional typesetting except for the number system and dot system. The unit of calculation is mm, which is called grade (J or K). Each level is equal to 0.25mm and 1mm is equal to level 4. The size of typesetting text can be discharged generally from level 7 to level 62, and also from level 7 to level 100. In the computer Phototypesetting system, there are point system and number system. When printing and typesetting, if you encounter characters marked with numbers, you must convert the number into series to master the correct size of characters. The conversion relationship between number and series is:

1j=1k=0.25mm=0.714 points (P)

1 point (P) =0.35mm=1.4 levels (J or K)

3. Layout design and typesetting specifications

when typesetting, layout design should be carried out according to the requirements of printing layout. For example, in the printing of a book, attention should be paid to the size of the folio, the form of typesetting (horizontal or vertical), the font size of the text, the number of lines on each page and the number of words on each line, the gap between words and lines, the number of columns and words in each column, the spacing between columns, the placement position of page numbers and page numbers, the position and size of headers and footers, etc

when typesetting, we should also pay attention to some rules of prohibition, such as two characters should be left blank at the beginning of each paragraph, no period, comma, stop sign, semicolon, colon, question mark, exclamation mark, and punctuation marks such as lower quotation mark, lower bracket, lower book name, etc. at the beginning of the line, no upper quotation mark, upper bracket, upper book name, and serial number in Chinese, such as ①, ②, ③, etc. at the end of the line, the fraction, year, chemical formula The sign in front of the number, the temperature identifier and the foreign words of the monosyllabic section should not be arranged in the upper and lower lines separately

II. Paper

paper is one of the important contents that prepress staff need to pay attention to, which determines the great range of printed products

1. Composition of paper

paper is a kind of material that is processed by adding plant fibers to fillers, adhesives, pigments and other components

the raw materials of paper mainly include straw, bamboo, cotton and hemp, as well as usable waste materials. According to the different raw materials, the properties of the paper will be different

fillers are materials used to increase the flexibility of paper, reduce the transparency and flexibility of paper, and make the surface of paper flat and uniform, such as talc powder for general printing paper, kaolin and barium sulfate for high-grade paper, etc. The use of fillers should be appropriate, generally accounting for about 20% of the paper. Too much will reduce the resistance and flexibility of the thread, and will hinder the absorption of ink, resulting in the problem of powder loss during printing

glue is used to fill the small pores in the paper, so as to improve the water resistance of the paper, improve the gloss and strength of the paper, and make the measurement results more accurate to prevent the paper from fuzzing. Commonly used sizing materials include rosin, alum, starch, etc

colorants are mostly inorganic pigments or organic dyes used to enhance the color purity of paper

2. Paper specification

paper can be divided into flat paper and web paper according to different printing purposes. Flat paper is suitable for general printing machines, and web paper is generally used for high-speed rotary printing machines

the size of paper should generally be produced according to the national standards. The size of base paper for printing, writing and drawing is: the width of web paper is divided into 1575mm, 1092mm, 880mm and 787mm; The base paper size of flat paper is divided into six types according to size: 880mm 1230mm, 850mm 1168mm, 880mm 1092mm, 787mm 1092mm, 787mm 960mm, 690mm 960mm, etc

the national standard for book and magazine format and paper size is to use 880mm 1230mm, 900mm 1280mm, 1000mm 1400mm uncut single paper size printing. Due to equipment, production, supply and other reasons, the original 787mm 1092mm, 850mm 1168mm paper can still be used at present, but it should be noted that this size is an old standard folio to be phased out, and the future paper size will transition to the new national standard

in coastal areas, because of many foreign-funded printing enterprises, many printing institutions are still widely using some old paper, and the weight of paper is expressed in quantitative and order weight. It is generally expressed in quantitative terms, which is commonly known as gram weight. Quantitative refers to the mass relationship per unit area of paper, expressed in g/m2. For example, 150g paper means that the weight of a single sheet of this kind of paper per square meter is 150g. Paper with a weight of less than 200g/m2 (including 200g/m2) is called paper, and paper with a weight of more than 200g/m2 is called paperboard. The order weight refers to the total mass of paper per order (500 sheets of paper is 1 order), and the unit is kg (kilogram). According to the quantity and size of the paper, the order weight can be calculated by using the formula of order weight (kg) = paper size (M2) 500 quantity (g/m2)

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